Identify a research or evidence-based article that focuses comprehensively on a specific intervention or new diagnostic tool for the treatment of diabetes in adults or children.


Lifestyle Changes

Coppell et al., (2010), conducted Lifestyle Over and Above Drugs in Diabetes (LOADD)
research to determine the extent to which intensive individualized dietary advice assists in
reducing diabetes complications. Type 2 diabetes prevalence has been increasing in the United
States of America for over 30 years. Over 132 US million dollars have been used to treat the
disease so far. Moreover, the infection has affected the world significantly estimating its
prevalence to be over 300 million individuals by 2025. Type 2 diabetes has led to a massive
number of deaths and morbidity rates (American Diabetes Association, 2018). Furthermore, it
has directly been associated with eyes, nerves, and kidney infections, macrovascular and
microvascular conditions that cause cardiovascular infection. Different studies have been
conducted to reduce the prevalence, severity, and treatment of diabetes. The researchers have
developed interventions to reduce the number of diabetes patients. Among them is intensive
individualized dietary advice intervention. This paper provides a description of findings on
lifestyle changes as an intervention applied to reduce type 2 diabetes’ prevalence.
Patients suffering from type 2 diabetes have been recommended to follow a certainly
prescribed diet as the basis for the disease treatment. Arguably, the researchers believe that
controlled intake of nutrients and energy giving foods will increase the glycaemic control and
decrease the risk of unfavorable conditions. However, it is very difficult for individuals to adhere
to healthy lifestyle changes because they prefer medication rather than dietary control. The study
was carried out in Dunedin, New Zealand at the human nutrition department, Otago University.
The study required type 2 diabetes patients having been infected for more than 9 months before
commencement of the study. Participants were under the age of seventy years and Dunedin city
residents. Additionally, they had glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) of more than seven percent (Coppell etal., 2010). Despite the study being aimed at patients with cardiovascular infection
risk, they were required to have either two of the following features; high blood pressure,
obesity, or dyslipidemia. Pregnant women and other people with severe illness were excluded.
This intervention applied Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group of the European
Association Evidence-Based recommendation. This study required the participants to consume
10-20 percent protein, less than 10 percent saturated fats, less than 30 percent total fat, lower
than 10 percent polyunsaturated fatty acids, not more than 60 percent carbohydrate of total
energy. 40 grams per day of dietary fiber intake was recommended, in which half had to be
soluble (Coppell etal., 2010). A control group was also established in which they had an
increased uptake of hypoglycemic medications.
The intervention indicated that intensive nutrition treatment showed significant changes
in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic people who were at heart disease risk. Previously, relating
to international management guidelines, control of diabetic people with cardiovascular infections
was considered unreliable despite the use of medicine. Individuals who were using drug
treatment decreased their insulin and tablets intake. The HbA 1C reduced to 0.4 percent which is
comparable to new medicine trial by clinics. Although the decrease in HbA 1c was identified to be
appealing, the diabetic complications are always continuous thus it only reduces the risk of
unfavorable conditions. The intervention provided results which occur in patients taking insulin.
However, the group under study did not gain weight contrary to insulin users. Furthermore, the
control group did not indicate any enhancements in glycaemic control regardless of the excess
medication or modifications in their hypoglycemic medications (Møller etal., 2017). Adiposity
measures were enhanced simultaneously with HbA 1c improvements. The distinction between the
two groups was also evident. There was no significant distinction in the blood pressure of participants and the control group. This condition may have been brought by the fact that at the
beginning of the study the values were close and also lipid modifying and anti-blood pressure
medications were efficacious.
Similar studies have been conducted concerning the impacts of nutrition on controlling
diabetes complications. For instance, a study carried out by Riccardi & Giacco (2018) indicated
that lifestyles intervention was efficient similar to insulin in enhancing glycaemic control in
individuals with type two diabetes on required medications of oral hypoglycemic agents.
Additionally, it confirmed that lifestyle change led to a loss of weight while insulin intake led to
increased weight and obesity. Further, they recommended a diet containing monounsaturated fats
which have a much appealing metabolic outcome and may decrease the resistance of insulin and
severe effects of metabolism. Nevertheless, these fats must be controlled because they possess a
lot of energy and may result in obesity, and an excessive amount they may promote insulin
The study implicated that guidelines by diabetes and nutrition study group are not
prescriptive like the previous guidelines provided by dieticians. Furthermore, it argues that
various dietary patterns may be applied to treat type 2 diabetes. These current guidelines have
put emphasis on the suitable taking of needed energy which includes correct amount of
vegetables, low fat, fruits, wholegrain cereals, and protein. Mediterranean diet type is
recommended for individuals who prefer taking a lot of fat. Uncontrolled lifestyles including
poor physical activity, overweight, and obesity, therefore, are mostly associated with establishing
resistance to insulin thus leading to type 2 diabetes (Riccardi & Giacco 2018). Treating
resistance to insulin through changes in lifestyle indicates an effective alternative since it helps
patients lose weight.

Posted in Uncategorized